Monday, August 24, 2020

Analog and Digital Recording essays

Simple and Digital Recording papers When you tune in to a tape, do you know how the sound arrived? When you buy a CD or a record, do you realize which will sound better and last more? Do you know the segments of Digital and Analog account? In this paper I will characterize, clarify and look at the likenesses of Digital and Analog chronicle. Simple account implies, the wave type of the recorded sign takes after the wave type of the first. (Alten) Records were of the couple of among the start of Analog chronicle, anyway contrasted with Digital account, Analog has a low recurrence control because of the way that the adequacy of the electrical sign created was relative to the side to side speed of the pointer. (Walsh) Something in which individuals tune in to every now and again is Audiotape. Audiotape in Analog chronicle is characterized as the transformation of electrical signs into attractive signals in the account stage and afterward it is encoded onto tape. At the point when the tape is played back, attractive signs are then reconverted over into electrical signs. (Alten) The self-restraint of Audiotape recording is a stripe of plastic which has been covered with material that is effortlessly polarized. It has three heads, which are the Erasehead, Recordhead and the Playhead, which is otherwise called the E.R.P. (Alten) The signs that are applied to the Recordheads are adjusted by the speed and the tape type. (Computerized Domain) The elements of the three unique sorts of Heads are as per the following. The Erasehead; kills the polarities of the attractive particles to expel sound from the tape. (Alten) This is the reason a great many people are cautious about hitting that record button unintentionally, while playing important data. The Recordhead is the one we use when naming a melody or our voices to tape. It conveys two signals, the record predisposition current and the sound current. This sign ... <!

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Human Resource Development Free Essays

string(130) perceived measures which offers successful and quality to clients and better assurance of an occupation candidate’s competency. Chapter by chapter guide Assignment Brie Introduction2 1. 0Task 013 2. 1 Role of UK Government in preparing development3 2. We will compose a custom paper test on Human Resource Development or on the other hand any comparable theme just for you Request Now 2. 1 NVQs and competency developments in the UK4 2. 2. 2 NVQ Levels of UK5 2. 3 Contemporary trainings activities in Sri Lanka6 2. 3. 1 Vocational Institute of Sri Lanka6 2. 3. 2 Tertiary and Vocational Education Commission (TVEC)6 . 3. 3 National Apprentice and Industry Training Authority (NAITA)7 2. 3. 4 The Ceylon German Technical Training Institute (CGTTI)7 2. 3. 5 NVQs in UK and Sri Lanka8 3. 0. Errand 039 3. 1 Training and Development9 3. 2 Identifying Employee Training Needs10 3. 3 Importance of Employee Training for the Bank10 3. 4 Factors for Training and Development11 3. 5 Importance of Evaluation11 3. 6 The Way of Evaluation Needs To Be On Going12 4. 0 Conclusion13 5. 0 Reference14 1. 0 Introduction Human Resource Development is a procedure and arranged exercises structured, for example, utilization of preparing, association, and profession advancement endeavors by an association to improve individual, gathering and hierarchical viability. The advancement procedure develops significant abilities that encourage to execute present and future occupation requests and empower the association to meet its key goals. Human asset the executives (HRM) incorporates numerous jobs and Human asset advancement (HRD) is only one of the capacities inside Human Resource Management. Elements of the HRD are Training and advancement, Career improvement and Organizational turn of events. HRD manager’s job towards this is fuse HRD with hierarchical objectives and procedures while alter HRD to corporate needs and spending plan, Promotes HRD as a benefit enhancer and representative execution upgrade. As indicated by the hypotheses of learning in HRD, is critical to perceive how individuals learn and in this manner there are six primary speculations goes under learning styles, for example, behaviorism, cognitivism, social learning hypothesis, social constructivism, numerous insights and cerebrum based learning. NVQs and competency developments are built up in the UK government so as to improve word related aptitudes of workers. These depend on national word related principles. Principles are proclamations of execution portray what skilled individuals in a specific occupation are relied upon to have the option to do. HRD incorporate ways and strategies for recognizing preparing and improvement needs and how preparing add to accomplish of business goals and the job a preparation and advancement strategy for a business association. Assessments on factors are critical which are significant for arranging a preparation and improvement. Human Resource Development is indispensable towards accomplishing organization destinations and should know about when preparing and advancement should be. 1. 0 Task 01 2. 1 Role of UK Government in preparing advancement United Kingdom government is distinguish occupations for which aptitudes and preparing required, perceives the essentialness of preparing and give motivating forces to pull in and hold the workers. Furthermore, find the issues in labor arranging, improvement and confirm that administration can execute to advance preparing. The Department of Employment and Learning-UK This office gave wide scope of preparing and improvement projects to the individuals around the United Kingdom. Point of the office is to advance learning and aptitudes, to get ready individuals for work and to help the economy. Targets are to help monetary, social and self-improvement through excellent learning, help individuals into work, research and abilities preparing and offer great business rehearses. Significant exercises of the office * Develop the interest and state of learning aptitudes, business enterprise, the board, venture and authority abilities. * Maintain and increment the degree of innovative work, advancement and imagination in the Northern Ireland economy; * bolster people to secure positions, including independent work, and improving the relationship among business projects and abilities improvement; * The turn of events and upkeep of the structure of work rights and duties. Aptitudes arrangement administration offers a solitary purpose of contact for representatives, departmental prepared abilities counsel is accessible to meet worker to talk about preparing needs and guidance to achieve his/her necessities, help progress an application, help with applying for money related help where fitting. 2. 2. 1 NVQs and competency developments in the UK National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) depend on aptitudes, information and comprehension of an individual have which are identified with explicit territory of work. Purpose behind the Introduction of NVQs was to address shortcomings in current frameworks of professional capabilities in United Kingdom, 1986. As indicated by the distribution of the White Paper Working together, instruction and preparing, the National Council for Vocational Qualifications (NCVQ) was set up. At that point NCVQ created as a structure of NVQs which incorporate five levels and 11 word related zones. the legislature subsidized for NVQs are based Industry Training Organizations to build up the word related measures , with granting bodies building up the appraisal and quality confirmation game plans to models set by NCVQ. In 1994 White Paper Competitiveness, a lion's share of bosses were either utilizing or expected to profit by NVQs and 40,000 supervisors were dependable NVQs as verification of lifetime learning. Also, NVQs proceed modern and the substance and structure of all NVQs inspected by April 1996. These capabilities depend on national word related norms (NOS). NOS gauges are characterize the capacities, information and understanding required for a given occupation, and distinguishes results that can be evaluated. NOS are spread pretty much every occupation, existing as units and structure the premise of all National Vocational Qualifications. NVQs are assorted from customary capabilities on what individuals can do and show at work place. Conventional capabilities are simply some portion of the educational plan is found out and surveyed. As per NVQ, everything that is determined in the capability must be accomplished and surveyed, energize and bolster the possibility to pick up information on the best way to do the rest of assess what the applicant can accomplish at the work place. NVQs offer advantages for people, for example, Recognition of employment skills paying little mind to how they were gained Certification as having satisfied national guidelines for a word related job, improved employability and transferability an adaptable course to getting qualified. Businesses can have points of interest a powerful method of creating staff that has globally perceived norms which offers successful and quality to clients and better assurance of an occupation candidate’s competency. You read Human Resource Development in classification Article models For the national level, NVQs are guaranteed workers’ abilities on merchandise and enterprises delivered and making the nation increasingly serious and improves the appeal of the work power to remote financial specialists by giving accreditation of word related skill. 2. 2. 2 NVQ Levels of UK BTEC Higher National Diplomas (HND) gives more prominent quality and specialization, Edexcel is one of the primary granting and analyzing association in the UK and directly through the world. NVQs have created for five degrees of abilities, Level 01 †Entry level Foundation Skills †This level recognizes capacities of various work exercises acted in an assortment of points of view. Exercises are straightforward and particularly huge management is required all through the underlying advances and early months. Level 02 †gifted occupation †Identifies capability in different work exercises and acted in various settings, some of exercises are intricate and non †standard, some are obligation and independence. Direction is required all through the work. Level 03 †Technician and administrative occupations Perceives abilities in a wide scope of complex, which are identified with specialized or Professional work exercises execute in wide assortment of settings. The individual ought to be skilled of self-coordinated application, shows critical thinking, structuring, arranging and administrative capacities. Level 04 †specialized expert and center administration occupations This level perceives capabilities including the utilization of essential standards and complex methods on wide region of points of view. Level 04 is Equivalent to confirmation, First degree, Higher National Diploma and nursing or educating capability. Level 05 †sanctioned proficient and senior administration occupations Level recognizes the capacity to utilization of individual expert obligation regarding improvement, structuring, item development, procedure, framework or administrations. Furthermore, this level perceives specialized and administrative skills at the most elevated level and individuals who are involved in the most noteworthy obligation and made exceptional commitment to the advancement and practice of their occupation. This level is comparable recognition, Master’s qualification, PhD and PGC 2. 3 Contemporary trainings activities in Sri Lanka 2. 3. 1 Vocational Institute of Sri Lanka Under the arrangements of the Vocational Training Authority of Sri Lanka Act No: 12 of 1995, Vocational Training Authority (VTA) was built up in Sri Lanka which is working under the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Skills Developments. This has 6 National Vocational Training Institutes with 22 District Vocational Training Centers and 232 Vocational instructional hubs. VTA is actualizing the abilities improvement projects and offer aptitudes preparing for rustic youth as per different fields. The Exposure of preparing for rur

Sunday, July 19, 2020


Macro-Economic Macro-Economic Home›Economics Posts›Macro-Economic Economics PostsExplain what is meant by the reserve ratio.It is defined as the amount of money and the liquid assets that are members of federal reserve systems holding on cash or deposit with federal reserve system , most of the time, some percentage on their demand deposits and the time deposits. They are known as the Federal Reserve requirement or the reserve requirement.Give the formulas for the simple money multiplier and money supply multiplier when people hold cash and explain the difference between the two.Money Multiplier=1/Cash Ratio.Potential money supply= money multiplier multiplied by Initial deposit. The common mechanism used in the generation of money and typically called the money multiplier. It is the measurement of the amount by the commercial banking system that increases the supply in money. On other hand money supply multiplier is defined as the deposits held with the chartered banks and near bank.What would happen to the real world multiplier as people begin to hold a larger fraction of their assets in the form of cash?As we know, the financial trends are always global; nonetheless, they are substantial cross-country in differences and financial institutions that will be experienced after people begin holding large amounts of cash money.How is the quantity theory of money related to the equation of exchange?The quantity of money theory is the theory that stating that, there is a direct relationship between quantity of the money in economy and level of prices in goods and the services sold. In the equation of exchange tends to be the foundation whereby quantity theory of the money is built. This theory describes price level.Equation:     MV=PY whereby M is money supply, while V stands for velocity of the circulation. P stands for the average level in price and finally Y is the number of exchange.What are the implications of the quantity theory for dealing with inflation?It argues that rapid increases in quantity or circulation of money are caused by inflation. In addition to that, deflation is caused by the decreases or slow increases in quantity of the money circulation.Equation: RI Nominal= Inflation + k, whereby K stands for the real rate in interest.Why do economists who believe in the quantity theory advocate monetary growth rules?Because the monetarists believe in the supply of money determining primarily the nominal GDP in short run and price level in long run, they usually think that money control and supply should not be left in discretion of the bankers.How does the balance of payments differ from the balance on goods and services?Balance of payment is described as the records of payments and residents receipts of a countries transaction being included and receipts of each country being equal while balancing of goods and services is simply the differences between total export and imports. The balance of payments mostly reports the financial flows of the country while the balance in goods and services is the opposite (Nourine and Backus, 19). A good example is the money entering a country for transactions and the money from the same country. The difference between them is change in official currency that reserves in the central bank.How do these balances relate to the international supply and demand for a nations currency?As a subset of balance of payments accounting and tracking currency flow and other monetary assets that are exchanged between nations for trade. This includes the payments for the exports and imports of both services and goods.Why is there a significant debate about our international macroeconomic goals with respect to exchange rates and the trade deficit?As it is known around the globe, it is very rare for any government to be able to meet all objectives it has at the same time. This is particularly true in that budget deficits growth reflects on growing current account in deficits.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Essay on Deforestation - 2202 Words

Deforestation is a major global problem with serious consequences to the planet. These consequences have a negative effect on the climate, biodiversity, the atmosphere and threatens the cultural and physical survival of life. Deforestation is the permanent destruction of indigenous forests and woodlands. It has resulted in the reduction of indigenous forests to four-fifths of their pre-agricultural area, so that now indigenous forests cover only 21% of the earths land surface. The world Resources Institute regards deforestation as one of the worlds most pressing land use problem. It is now so bad that every minute an area of forest equal to 20 football fields is lost. Rainforests cover less than†¦show more content†¦Logging tropical hardwoods like teak, mahogany, rosewood and other timber for furniture, building materials, charcoal and other wood products is big business and creates big profits. Several species of tropical hardwoods are imported by developed counties, including America, just to build coffins which are then buried or burned. The demand, extraction and consumption of tropical hardwoods has been so massive that some countries which have been traditional exporters of tropical hardwoods are now importing the wood because they have already exhausted their supply by destroying their native rainforests in slash and burn operations. It is anticipated that The Philippines, Malaysia, The Ivory Coast, Nigeria and Thailand will all run out of rainforest hardwood for export within the next five years. In addition to logging for exportation, rainforest wood stays in developing countries for fuel wood and charcoal. One single steel plant in Brazil making steel for Japanese cars needs millions of tons of wood each year to produce charcoal that can be used in the manufacture of steel. Then there is the paper industry. A pulpwood project in the Brazilian Amazon consists of a Japanese power plant and pulp mill. To set up this single plant operation, 5,600 square miles of Amazon Rainforest was burned to the ground and replantedShow MoreRelatedDeforestation : Deforestation And Deforestation2094 Words   |  9 Pagesto deforestation. The Amazon is the world’s largest tropical rainforest and it is the world’s source of oxygen. Deforestation has slowed down years ago, but now, it is starting to increase and does not show that it will slow down. Earth without tree’s, the human race and animals would not be able to survive. Today’s society is not taking deforest ation as a serious matter. If deforestation were to be left alone, the planet and animals would not be the only ones suffering from it. Deforestation isRead MoreDeforestation Is The Real Consequences Of Deforestation1231 Words   |  5 Pageslike without these forests? If the rate of deforestation continues to increase then we may have to find out the answer to that question. Deforestation is a recurring global problem which is the act of tearing down a forest to use the land for a different purpose. Today’s society is so steadfast on advancement that they aren t stepping back to look at the solutions to the problem, alternatives, nor the very real consequences of deforestation. Deforestation could be destroyed in multiple ways. One ofRead MoreDeforestation And Its Effects On Deforestation1505 Words   |  7 Pagesdisappear.† It’s time for the government to take action on deforestation. Rainforests are an important location for indigenous people and animals because that’s where their home belongs. Yet the government and organizations ignore those facts and just demolish their homes in order to gain a new location for productions. It’s a topic that’s constantly debated in politics and society should take a recognition on what’s happening in deforestation. More than half of the world’s rainforests are destroyedRead MoreArticle Review On Deforestation And Deforestation999 Words   |  4 The article focuses on the habitat loss due to deforestation. The author talks about the different purpose of deforestation such as agriculture, forestry, or water projects that endangers the species that live in the area. The article is based on information taken from World Wildlife Fund, IUCN, and Red List. The information that the author provides is important and useful to the topic of deforestation. Overall, the article is well written and well researched. MainstreamRead MoreDeforestation And The Global Issue Of Deforestation934 Words   |  4 Pagessocial causes of deforestation are predominantly created by human needs. In turn these causes hinder sustainability. This report states that although it is important to meet the needs of humans, the needs must be satisfied in a sustainably conscious manner. For this to be achieved, direct effects of each human need must be critically analysed and understood. This paper aims to deliver this by identifying particular human actions that contribute to the global issue of deforestation. Furthermore, theRead MoreDeforestation Is Justified By Deforestation1964 Words   |  8 Pagesdioxide, a toxic gas. As deforestation occurs, many forests are being wiped out and replaced with farmland. This leads to the question â€Å"Can Deforestation Be Justified?† For the purpose of this essay, deforestation can be defined as Deforestation is the clearing of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest us. Deforestation can be justified because it provides land for farming and natural resources. On the other hand, deforestation cannot be justified becauseRead MoreThe Deforestation Of The Amazons Deforestation1809 Words   |  8 PagesThe Amazons Deforestation Have your eyes ever set on a barren land where even technology can’t reverse the damage we have caused? We care mostly for the present, but we must never forget to see to the future and in this case the deforestation of the Amazons. â€Å"Deforestation is considered the second largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere† (Song et al. 2). Each day we are wiping out miles of trees from one of our most diverse ecosystems in the planet, and one of our largestRead MoreDeforestation Analysis994 Words   |  4 Pagesprices, conservation policies and deforestation in Colombia, a multiple regression model will be constructed to relate the changes in forest cover (variable pending) by established period of time, tipping points in the policies (independent variable ) and variation in the agricultural prices (control variable) (Assuncao et al., 2015, Reyes-Hernà ¡ndez et al., 2003). The following describes each of the variables to be analyzed in the study: Deforestation Deforestation data will be collected from theRead MoreDeforestation2514 Words   |  11 Pagesproblem which in this case is deforestation explored though the areas interconnectedness with Biodiversity and Conservation Biology as well as the area of Soil and Agriculture. Furthermore the first part contains a relevant environmental awareness and responsibility plan. The second part contains my own â€Å"Statement of Environmental Awareness and Responsibility† DEFORESTATION – a challenge to sustainable environment on Earth By Eric Notulu Mubuka INTRODUCTION Deforestation is commonly defined as:Read MoreDanger of Deforestation2627 Words   |  11 PagesThe Danger of Deforestation(rough draft) By Chenghao Chen ENGL 289 Mrs. Michelle Graf 7/1/2012 It is obvious the importance of the forest vegetation to everyone in the society. However, people in the past ages did a kind of thing that they thought was very meaningful—cutting down the trees. When they recall this history, most of them cannot be restrained from their remorse and guilty to it. Trees or forest are things that not only protect the environment but also help people to live better

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Research Proposal For Improving Elderly Women s Health

Research Objectives and Questions This research proposal aims to make contributions to improve elderly women‘s health. What policies can help increase the participation rate of breast cancer screening among elderly women? There are two objectives in the process of research 1. To explore and investigate the factors associated with elderly women’s decisions on breast cancer screening in Australia. How to measure it will be in the second objective. Using these factors as variables, we can make questionnaires and list relevant questions. 2. To evaluate how largely these factors can influence elderly women’s decisions. Measuring the importance of each factor can guide governments and BreastScreen programmes to prioritise. In the†¦show more content†¦Participants will choose an option to show whether they would like to have a breast cancer screening in the questionnaire. Each decision would be operationalised by the options for participants. Ethics The research concerns participants’ privacy, therefore ensuring anonymity and confidentiality is an important ethical consideration. Participant Information Form and Participant Consent Form will guide this research and help introduce the procedures and risks involved in this research to the participants. Participants should voluntarily be involved in this research without feeling any pressure, they can opt out of the questionnaire at any time, and their information will not be used. Questionnaires only require participants to indicate their age and nationality in regards to their personal identity which ensure anonymity. And identifying information of participants will not be given to anyone who is not involved in this research to ensure confidentiality. Methodology I will use questionnaires to conduct this research, it is more practical and effective. The sample frame will be purposive sampling. I will hand out questionnaires in Australian hospitals or women healthcare centre or nursing home, and invite 100 women aged 50-74 to answer the questions. Firstly, questionnaires are more effective and easier to analyse compared with face-to-faceShow MoreRelatedHealth Care Museum1277 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿University of Phoenix Material Health Care Museum Part 1: Health Care Hall of Fame Museum Proposal Development Description Analysis (How does the development affect the current U.S. health care system?) 1. Surgery A surgical procedure is medical treatment that involves a physician cutting into a patient’s body to repair or remove something. Surgery procedures have existed since prehistoric man. In 1540 C.E. barbers and surgeons united to form The United Barber-Surgeons Company. TheseRead MoreA Community Social Event Programme For A Group Of People Over The Age Of 65 Years2171 Words   |  9 PagesIntroduction This is a project proposal for a community social event programme for a group of people over the age of 65 years. The project will identify an important need to address loneliness in old age which is a major health concern. This project proposal will explain the stages of planning the programme. Defining the Problem After contacting several organisations in the Donegal area, from the Active Retirement Association, the Family Resource Centre, the local public health nurse, and the neighbouringRead MoreConcepts of Health2342 Words   |  10 PagesCONCEPTS OF HEALTH INTRODUCTION As humans remain different in nature, so are their perceptions and response towards certain issues of their lives and well being. The concept of health assumes to be a typical example of this and hence, poses debate about what it is. â€Å"Health† is a word which means different things to different people (Ewles Simnett, 2003). This essay intends to critically discuss the meaning of health by exploring different definitions and their contraindications. Naidoo Read MoreReminiscence and Life Review Group for Elderly People Essay5423 Words   |  22 PagesReminiscence and Life Review Group for Elderly People Shane Hyde Jane Westervelt University of Idaho Reminiscence and Life Review Group for Elderly People The population of the United States is rapidly aging, and as it does, concerns for the mental health and life satisfaction of the elderly is growing. The U.S. Census Bureau projects a 29% increase in the overall population from 2000 to 2030. In contrast, the number of people 65-84 is expected to grow by approximately 100%, and theRead MoreBudget 2013-20144555 Words   |  19 PagesGovernment. High growth rate can again be achieved through cooperation. ‘Higher growth leading to inclusive and sustainable development’ to be the mool mantra. Government believes in inclusive development with emphasis on improving human development indicators specially of women, the scheduled castes, the scheduled tribes, the minorities and some backward classes. This Budget to be a testimony to that commitment. Fiscal Deficit, Current Account Deficit and Inflation The purpose of Budget to createRead MoreFish Bone Diagram from a Case Sudy4439 Words   |  18 PagesCollaboration in bu siness process re-engineerIng: purchasing and supplies Valerie Bence Centre for Logistics and Transportation, Cranfield University, UK St James s University Hospital in Leeds is one of the biggest teaching hospitals in Europe and one of the largest acute service units in the UK National Health Service (NHS). Granted trust status in April 1991, it employs over 5000 people and sees 450,000 patients a year (see Industry Note in Appendix 22.1). Operating income from the internalRead MoreWomen Empowerment12463 Words   |  50 PagesNATIONAL POLICY FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN (2001) | | |Introduction | |The principle of gender equality is enshrined in the Indian Constitution in its Preamble, Fundamental | |Rights, Fundamental Duties and Directive Principles. The Constitution not only grants equality to | |women, but also empowers the State to adopt measures of positive discrimination in favour of women. | |Within the framework of a democraticRead MoreAnnotated Bibliography: Plagiarism39529 Words   |  158 Pagesï » ¿Plagiarism Bibliography Buckwalter, J. A., Wright, T., Mogoanta, L. and Alman, B. (2012), Plagiarism: An assault on the integrity of scientific research. J. Orthop. Res., 30:  1867 1868. Granitz, N. and Loewy, D. (2007). Applying Ethical Theories: Interpreting and Responding to Student Plagiarism. Journal of Business Ethics, 72(3), 293-306. Luke, B. and Kearins, K. (2012), Attribution of words versus attribution of responsibilities: Academic plagiarism and university practice. Vaccine, 30(50):Read MorePros and Cons of Us Healthcare System10039 Words   |  41 PagesComparative Study of United States and Canadas Health Care System October 19, 2012 Table of Contents I. Problem/Issue Statement 5 II. Literature Review 6 III. Problem Analysis 22 A. Government involvement 22 B. Coverage and Access 24 C. Wait times 24 D. Price of health care 25 E. Medical professionals 26 F. Drugs 27 G. Technology 28 H. Malpractice Litigation 28 I. Health Care Outcome 29 IV. Solutions and Implementation 29 V. Justification 31 VI. References 35 Executive SummaryRead MoreBusiness Case: Marketing Research for Customers Segmentation12172 Words   |  49 PagesOriflame Belarus From: Marketing Manager XXX Date: 21/11/2010 BUSINESS CASE Version Number: 1.0 Marketing research for customers segmentation This document is confidential and has been made available to the individual to whom it is addressed strictly on the understanding that its contents will not be disclosed or discussed with any third parties with exception of the individual s own professional advisers. page. 1 of 29 Table of Contents 1 Executive Summary ....................

Development of the Bill of Rights Free Essays

string(175) " constitutionality of a Connecticut law which banned solicitation of money for religious or charitable reasons unless approved by the secretary of the public welfare council\." When the American colonies rebelled against Great Britain, the rebels gave their reasons in the Declaration of Independence. According to the Declaration, people have unalienable rights to liberty. â€Å"The ideology of the revolutionary generation shaped the later American Bill of Rights. We will write a custom essay sample on Development of the Bill of Rights or any similar topic only for you Order Now This revolutionary ideology combined and wove together both the natural rights of man and the historic rights of Englishmen†. The colonists emphasized natural rights and historic liberties as a result of their view of government. Government was potentially hostile to human liberty and happiness. Power was essentially aggressive. The rebellious colonists dealt with the problem of aggressive political power by several devices: separation of powers, an independent judiciary, the right of people to have a share in their own government by representatives chosen by themselves, and an insistence on the natural and historical rights and liberties of citizens reflected in revolutionary bills of rights of the several states. These concessions to slavery produced some protests. George Mason, delegate from Virginia and a leading advocate of a federal bill of rights, complained that delegates from South Carolina and Georgia were more interested in protecting the right to import slaves than in promoting â€Å"the Liberty and Happiness of the people. † Some framers rationalized the compromise with slavery on the assumption that the institution would soon die out. In truth, however, a compromise was made in the interest of the Union. While the framers compromised with slavery, they took steps to prevent its spread to new states. Particularly after the adoption of the Bill of Rights the Constitution reflected the Jekyll-and-Hyde character of the nation. The nation sought simultaneously to protect liberty and slavery. All in all, the Bill of Rights was adopted because of the fear of abuses of power by the federal government. It simply had no application to the states. The idea that the federal Bill of Rights protects liberty of speech and press, freedom of religion, and other basic rights from violations by the states has become commonplace, even for lawyers. Indeed, many Americans probably accepted this commonplace when careful lawyers knew it was not so. From 1833 to 1868 the Supreme Court held that none of the rights in the Bill of Rights limited the states. From 1868 to 1925 it found very few of these liberties protected from state action. Those the states were free to flout (so far as federal limitations were concerned) seemed to include free speech, press, religion, the right to jury trial, freedom from self-incrimination, from infliction of cruel and unusual punishments, and more. State constitutions, with their own bills of rights, were available to protect the individual, but too often they proved to be paper barriers. Most, but not all, scholars believe that the Supreme Court was right, at least as a matter of history, up to 1868. They believe, that is, that the founding fathers did not intend for the Bill of Rights to limit the states. In contrast to the English Bill of Rights of 1689, in which the powers of Parliament are protected against the encroachments of the monarch, the American Bill of Rights was created to protect the individual against the intrusions of the legislative and executive branches of the government. As James Madison expressed it, â€Å"If we advert to the nature of Republican Government we shall find that censorial power is in the people over the Government, and not in the Government over the people. † Nowhere in the Bill of Rights is this more sharply affirmed than in the words of the First Amendment: â€Å"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. â€Å" Although nine of the thirteen colonies had established churches, four did not (Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware). By the time the First Amendment was adopted, however, only three states had an established church -Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Connecticut. Of even greater significance is that no two states shared the same religious configuration with respect to its population. Not to be overlooked is that in the decade between the Declaration of Independence and the Constitutional Convention, numerous states had made declarations in support of religious freedom prior to the adoption of the Bill of Rights. In 1868 the Fourteenth Amendment was ratified. Beginning in the 1920s, the U. S. Supreme Court began to apply the Bill of Rights to states through a process now called the incorporation of the Bill of Rights into the Fourteenth Amendment. As originally passed, the Bill of Rights applied only to the federal government and not to state governments. The Fourteenth Amendment’s equal protection and due process clauses clearly applied to the states. Through a series of lengthy cases, the Court engaged in a piecemeal process of interpreting the Fourteenth Amendment clauses to include the various freedoms protected in the Bill of Rights. In Near v. Minnesota (1931) the Supreme Court applied freedom of the press to the states. In this case, the city of Minneapolis tried to suppress the publication of scandalous, malicious and defamatory material in newspapers. A newspaper publishers association, fearing censorship, challenged the Minnesota law on the grounds of violation of freedom of press. The Supreme Court struck down the law by contending that it represented prior restraint of future issues. The most important freedom given to the press is freedom from prior restraint, the freedom not to be censored. The process of nationalizing the Bill of Rights through the Fourteenth Amendment continued in the area of free exercise of religion. In Hamilton v. Board of Regents (1934), the Court held that freedom of religion was protected by the First Amendment against invasion by the national government and by the states. This decision was confirmed in Cantwell v. Connecticut (1940). This case questioned the constitutionality of a Connecticut law which banned solicitation of money for religious or charitable reasons unless approved by the secretary of the public welfare council. You read "Development of the Bill of Rights" in category "Papers" This particular official had the authority to decide whether a fund-raising cause was truly a religious one. In a unanimous decision, the Supreme Court ruled that the statute violated religious freedom and the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. From the critical standpoint, the Bill of Rights not only constitutionally protects individual rights of citizens, such as freedom of religion, peaceable assembly, right to keep and bear arms, trial by jury, but it also secures the entire system of American democratic values and implementation of democracy in reality. For instance, freedom of press, declared of in the First Amendment, does not mean only that â€Å"Congress shall make no law†¦ abridging the freedom of†¦press. † Considering the fact independent media is one of the pillars of modern democracy, this constitutional guarantee aims to secure democratic principles of the country. Moreover, the freedom of press implies automatically the absence of any censorship limiting the execution of freedom of speech, which is too declared in the First Amendment and similarly is to protect democratic principles. The Bill of Rights has been created not only to protect freedoms and liberties of American citizens on individual levels, but also to secure the position of a person before the government. For example, the Fifth Amendment provides that no person shall be forced in any criminal case to be a witness against oneself. At the same time, from my personal viewpoint, the fundamental importance of the Bill of Rights is its long lasting effect and its tremendous influence on American legislative and judicial system. Firstly, the Bill triggered the adoption by the Congress of several important acts protecting civil liberties like Civil Rights Act. Secondly, because the Bill is an integral and vital part of US Constitution, and thus the ultimate legal power, legislative and judicial system have been continuously improving constitutional doctrine on individual rights. For example, one can notice during 1960-70s the constitutional rights of public employees to freedom of speech and association, procedural due process, and equal protection have also been vastly expanded. Historically the Constitution has retained its flexibility because interpretations of its meaning have changed. Choosing between two or more sets of competing values, the Supreme Court has played a major role in maintaining this flexibility. A significant trend has been the extension of civil rights to the previously powerless. For instance, the involvement of the U. S. Supreme Court in civil rights for blacks is long-standing, dating back to issues from the days of slavery. In the Dred Scott case (1857), Chief Justice Taney ruled that no blacks, slave or free, were citizens, and that blacks had no citizenship rights (Hall, 38). In 1883, two decades after the Civil War and the official end of slavery, the Court ruled on five separate suits affecting the rights of blacks, and collectively called the Civil Rights Cases (1883). These cases arose in response to the Civil Rights Act of 1875 which prohibited racial discrimination in jury selection and public accommodations. In these cases, the public accommodations portions of the 1875 act were challenged. The Court recognized that the Fourteenth Amendment forbade discrimination by states but it made no mention of discriminatory acts committed by individuals. Since the Civil Rights Act prohibited discrimination by individuals and private businesses, the Court ruled that the act had overstepped congressional authority and was therefore unconstitutional. By the end of World War II, the Supreme Court had become more supportive of civil rights for blacks. It struck down the all-white primary in Smith v. Allright (1944), arguing that the Democratic party was in essence an agent of the state and was therefore subject to the Fifteenth Amendment. During the late 1940s and the 1950s, the Court followed the trends begun earlier of moving away from the doctrine of â€Å"separate but equal† (Hall, 51). This may be seen in the cases of Sipuel v. Oklahoma (1948), Sweatt v. Painter (1950) and McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents (1950). In the Sipuel case, which was similar to the Gaines case, the Court ordered Oklahoma to provide a separate but equal law school for a black woman and stressed the need for equality in facilities. In Sweatt v. Painter, the state of Texas had established a separate black law school but it was inferior to the white law school at the University of Texas in the size of its faculty and the quality of its library and student body. The court ruled that the black law school had to be improved. The Court nearly overturned the â€Å"separate but equal† doctrine in the McLaurin case in which Oklahoma had allowed a black student to attend a white graduate school but had segregated him from the rest of the students by designating separate sections of the library, cafeteria and classrooms for him. The Court struck down these segregation provisions, claiming that they interfered with the ability of the black student to exchange ideas with other students, a requisite for a good education. Although these cases fell short of invalidating the â€Å"separate but equal† principle, they made segregation at the graduate school level more difficult to implement. Perhaps the most significant civil rights cases to aid blacks in the fight for equality were the two Brown cases in the 1950s. Brown v. Board of Education I (1954) arose as the result of a suit against Topeka, Kansas where Linda Brown, a black child, was not permitted to attend a segregated white school four blocks from her home. In Brown I, under the leadership of Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warren, the Court overturned the Plessy decision of â€Å"separate but equal† in the public schools by declaring that the separate but equal doctrine made black children feel inferior. In Brown v. Board of Education II (1955), the Court ruled on how to accomplish desegregation, concluding that local school boards should establish plans for desegregation under the supervision of federal district judges and â€Å"with all deliberate speed†. Despite these court rulings, southern school boards were slow to respond and avoided court orders by closing public schools and placing white children in private schools. Consequently, desegregation was only implemented very slowly. Women are not a minority but they have historically experienced legal discrimination based on their gender. The Supreme Court has played an important role in the expansion of rights for women. Overall the Court has been less important in the expansion of women’s rights than it has been in the extension of rights to blacks and other racial minorities. A major reason for the less important role of the Court is that women’s rights have mostly been broadened through legislation. Many women’s rights cases addressed by the Supreme Court have been concerned with employment. Early court decisions followed a trend of protectionism and upheld restrictions on the nature and conditions of employment for women. In Bradwell v. Illinois (1873), the Supreme Court upheld a state law preventing women from practicing law. Not until the 1970s did U. S. Supreme Court rulings begin to move away from the restrictive, protectionist trend of the past. Reed v. Reed (1971) was the first instance of the Court striking down a state law which discriminated against women. Taylor v. Louisiana (1975) overturned the precedent set in Hoyt v. Florida. Phillips v. Martin-Marietta (1971) ruled that employers could not discriminate against mothers of preschool children, despite fears that they might often miss work to care for their children. In Stanton v. Stanton (1975) the Court struck down a Utah law which required divorced fathers to support sons until they were twenty-one under the assumption that they would need support while being educated, while daughters had to be supported only until they were eighteen under the assumption that they would get married and be supported by their husbands. Beginning in the 1920s, the U. S. Supreme Court began to apply the Bill of Rights to states through a process now called the incorporation of the Bill of Rights into the Fourteenth Amendment. As originally passed, the Bill of Rights applied only to the federal government and not to state governments. The Fourteenth Amendment’s equal protection and due process clauses clearly applied to the states. Through a series of lengthy cases, the Court engaged in a piecemeal process of interpreting the Fourteenth Amendment clauses to include the various freedoms protected in the Bill of Rights. In Near v. Minnesota (1931) the Supreme Court applied freedom of the press to the states. In this case, the city of Minneapolis tried to suppress the publication of scandalous, malicious and defamatory material in newspapers. A newspaper publishers association, fearing censorship, challenged the Minnesota law on the grounds of violation of freedom of press. The Supreme Court struck down the law by contending that it represented prior restraint of future issues. The most important freedom given to the press is freedom from prior restraint, the freedom not to be censored. In many cases the statements embedded in the Bill of Rights are impacted directly or indirectly through the process of governance in the United States. One of the most peculiar examples of this impact is adoption of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001, commonly known as the Patriot Act. This act significantly expands the power of the federal government to investigate, detain, and deport those people who the government suspects are linked to terrorist activity and other crimes. The Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution requires the government to prove to a judicial officer that it has probable cause of a crime before it conducts an invasive search to find evidence of that crime or in exact words, this Amendment declares that â€Å"the right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Before the enactment of the Patriot Act, if the primary purpose was a criminal investigation, the law enforcement officials had to first prove the higher standard of probable cause. Investigating criminal activity cannot be the primary purpose of surveillance. Now American society witnesses how one of the most fundamental statements of the Bill of Rights, particularly that one protecting individual freedoms from the state, is challenged. The change made by Section 218 of the Patriot Act authorizes unconstitutional activity by impinging on the Fourth Amendment protection that requires probable cause. Section 218 now provides law enforcement officials with a tool to avoid probable cause when conducting criminal investigation surveillance. The adoption of the Patriot Act has been triggered with the war the United States declared against terrorism. Interestingly, the same event, the war on terrorism, challenged another important element of the Bill of Rights, namely the due process clause of the Fifth Amendment, which states that â€Å"no person shall †¦ be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law†¦.† Practically, this statement aims to secure individuals from unconstitutional exercise on the behalf of the government. Importantly, this article provides Americans with the right to be tried by unprejudiced courts with application of lawful procedures and laws. However, during the war in Afghanistan and Iraq, the US government intentionally deterred in prisons many prisoners of war (identifying them as terrorists) without court orders, indictments and further court hearings. Here one can notice the constitutional collision, in which the rights of the US government during wartime (including deterring of individuals without due process clause) challenges the statements embedded in the Bill of Rights. Works Cited Barnett, Randy E. ed., 1989. Ninth Amendment. supra note 29, at 18 Bailyn, Bernard. 1967. Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Ely, J. 1980. Democracy and Distrust. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Hall, Kermit L. 1989. The Magic Mirror. Law in American History, New York: Oxford University Press. Levine, James P. 1992. Juries and Politics, Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Madison, James. November 27, 1794. Republicanism. Speech in Congress. Annals of Congress 934. Nelson, William E. 1988. The Fourteenth Amendment: From Political Principle to Judicial Doctrine. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Schwartz, B. 1971. The Bill of Rights. A Documentary History. pp. 222-226. Wiecek, W.   1976. The Sources of Antislavery Constitutionalism in America, 1760-1848. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. P. 74 How to cite Development of the Bill of Rights, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

We Wear The Mask Essays - The Mask, The Mask Animated Series, Mask

We Wear The Mask Analysis of ?We Wear the Mask? In one of Paul Lawrence Dunbar's most famous poem's ?We Wear the Mask,? he describes the harsh reality of the black race in America and how they hide their grief, sadness, and broken hearts under a mask for a survival strategy towards whites. ?We wear the mask that grins and lies, It hides our cheeks and shades our eyes, This debt we pay to human guile; With torn and bleeding hearts we smile, And mouth with myriad subtleties.? In the first verse, the mask is taken off. The ?We? of the poem describes the black community that lives a double life, the masked and the unmasked. Dunbar included the word ?mask? in his poem because historically it was a false deceptive role-playing that was acceptable for a survival strategy by blacks and it maintained a sense of empowerment in a racial society. The word ?lies? is a simple word but the mask not only lies to the whites, but to the person who is wearing the mask that start to live by it. Dunbar uses the word ?mouth? as a verb, which intensifies our expressive genuine facial features that never lies. In life, the mask is the concealment of those features that reveal tears that give quality to a smile. The masks when worn is always smiling but underneath are the torn and broken heart of one's soul and ?this debt we pay to human guile.? The debt that the black community is paying dearly by wearing the mask everyday for the cunning white race with ?myriad subtleties?, t he black race that wants to speak out and be heard. ?Why should the world be otherwise, In counting all our tears and sighs? Nay, let them only see us, while We wear the mask.? The second verse, the mask is replaced. The word ?overwise?, Dunbar recognizes that the black people knew too much for their own good. They knew that if they were to speak out that they would be condemned for knowing too much in which they struggled for equality from the white race and peace within. In the last three lines of the second verse emphasis their hurt when they are not around the white race and how they are trapped under the mask. We smile, but, O great Christ, our cries To thee from tortured souls arise. We sing, but oh the clay is vile Beneath our feet, and long the mile; But let the world dream otherwise, We wear the mask! In the words ?We smile?, it shows that they wear their smiling mask everyday with tortured souls beneath and that they pray to Christ to find peace in the awful world they live in. The words ?clay is vile? sets the setting for slavery on a plantation in the south where clay is popular. The plantation is where they worked and lived. Which did whites that treated blacks with disgust own. The words ?world dream otherwise,? says that the otherwise will turn their head the other way and think differently. Some of them will die with their mask on and never realizing the truth or some will wake up without the mask and reveal the truth that it is wrong. In Paul Lawrence Dunbar's poem, he links it to the black race and uses extended metaphor to have a penetrating insight to the reality of the frowned upon race in America, that struggles for equality and peace within a racial society. Bibliography In one of Paul Lawrence Dunbar's most famous poem's ?We Wear the Mask,? he describes the harsh reality of the black race in America and how they hide their grief, sadness, and broken hearts under a mask for a survival strategy towards whites.