Thursday, May 21, 2020
Deforestation is a major global problem with serious consequences to the planet. These consequences have a negative effect on the climate, biodiversity, the atmosphere and threatens the cultural and physical survival of life. Deforestation is the permanent destruction of indigenous forests and woodlands. It has resulted in the reduction of indigenous forests to four-fifths of their pre-agricultural area, so that now indigenous forests cover only 21% of the earths land surface. The world Resources Institute regards deforestation as one of the worlds most pressing land use problem. It is now so bad that every minute an area of forest equal to 20 football fields is lost. Rainforests cover less thanÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Logging tropical hardwoods like teak, mahogany, rosewood and other timber for furniture, building materials, charcoal and other wood products is big business and creates big profits. Several species of tropical hardwoods are imported by developed counties, including America, just to build coffins which are then buried or burned. The demand, extraction and consumption of tropical hardwoods has been so massive that some countries which have been traditional exporters of tropical hardwoods are now importing the wood because they have already exhausted their supply by destroying their native rainforests in slash and burn operations. It is anticipated that The Philippines, Malaysia, The Ivory Coast, Nigeria and Thailand will all run out of rainforest hardwood for export within the next five years. In addition to logging for exportation, rainforest wood stays in developing countries for fuel wood and charcoal. One single steel plant in Brazil making steel for Japanese cars needs millions of tons of wood each year to produce charcoal that can be used in the manufacture of steel. Then there is the paper industry. A pulpwood project in the Brazilian Amazon consists of a Japanese power plant and pulp mill. To set up this single plant operation, 5,600 square miles of Amazon Rainforest was burned to the ground and replantedShow MoreRelatedDeforestation : Deforestation And Deforestation2094 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesto deforestation. The Amazon is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest tropical rainforest and it is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s source of oxygen. Deforestation has slowed down years ago, but now, it is starting to increase and does not show that it will slow down. Earth without treeÃ¢â¬â¢s, the human race and animals would not be able to survive. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s society is not taking deforest ation as a serious matter. If deforestation were to be left alone, the planet and animals would not be the only ones suffering from it. Deforestation isRead MoreDeforestation Is The Real Consequences Of Deforestation1231 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageslike without these forests? If the rate of deforestation continues to increase then we may have to find out the answer to that question. Deforestation is a recurring global problem which is the act of tearing down a forest to use the land for a different purpose. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s society is so steadfast on advancement that they aren t stepping back to look at the solutions to the problem, alternatives, nor the very real consequences of deforestation. Deforestation could be destroyed in multiple ways. One ofRead MoreDeforestation And Its Effects On Deforestation1505 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdisappear.Ã¢â¬ ItÃ¢â¬â¢s time for the government to take action on deforestation. Rainforests are an important location for indigenous people and animals because thatÃ¢â¬â¢s where their home belongs. Yet the government and organizations ignore those facts and just demolish their homes in order to gain a new location for productions. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a topic thatÃ¢â¬â¢s constantly debated in politics and society should take a recognition on whatÃ¢â¬â¢s happening in deforestation. More than half of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s rainforests are destroyedRead MoreArticle Review On Deforestation And Deforestation999 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesstate.gov/habitat-loss. The article focuses on the habitat loss due to deforestation. The author talks about the different purpose of deforestation such as agriculture, forestry, or water projects that endangers the species that live in the area. The article is based on information taken from World Wildlife Fund, IUCN, and Red List. The information that the author provides is important and useful to the topic of deforestation. Overall, the article is well written and well researched. MainstreamRead MoreDeforestation And The Global Issue Of Deforestation934 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessocial causes of deforestation are predominantly created by human needs. In turn these causes hinder sustainability. This report states that although it is important to meet the needs of humans, the needs must be satisfied in a sustainably conscious manner. For this to be achieved, direct effects of each human need must be critically analysed and understood. This paper aims to deliver this by identifying particular human actions that contribute to the global issue of deforestation. Furthermore, theRead MoreDeforestation Is Justified By Deforestation1964 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesdioxide, a toxic gas. As deforestation occurs, many forests are being wiped out and replaced with farmland. This leads to the question Ã¢â¬Å"Can Deforestation Be Justified?Ã¢â¬ For the purpose of this essay, deforestation can be defined as Deforestation is the clearing of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest us. Deforestation can be justified because it provides land for farming and natural resources. On the other hand, deforestation cannot be justified becauseRead MoreThe Deforestation Of The Amazons Deforestation1809 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe Amazons Deforestation Have your eyes ever set on a barren land where even technology canÃ¢â¬â¢t reverse the damage we have caused? We care mostly for the present, but we must never forget to see to the future and in this case the deforestation of the Amazons. Ã¢â¬Å"Deforestation is considered the second largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphereÃ¢â¬ (Song et al. 2). Each day we are wiping out miles of trees from one of our most diverse ecosystems in the planet, and one of our largestRead MoreDeforestation Analysis994 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesprices, conservation policies and deforestation in Colombia, a multiple regression model will be constructed to relate the changes in forest cover (variable pending) by established period of time, tipping points in the policies (independent variable ) and variation in the agricultural prices (control variable) (Assuncao et al., 2015, Reyes-HernÃ ¡ndez et al., 2003). The following describes each of the variables to be analyzed in the study: Deforestation Deforestation data will be collected from theRead MoreDeforestation2514 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesproblem which in this case is deforestation explored though the areas interconnectedness with Biodiversity and Conservation Biology as well as the area of Soil and Agriculture. Furthermore the first part contains a relevant environmental awareness and responsibility plan. The second part contains my own Ã¢â¬Å"Statement of Environmental Awareness and ResponsibilityÃ¢â¬ DEFORESTATION Ã¢â¬â a challenge to sustainable environment on Earth By Eric Notulu Mubuka INTRODUCTION Deforestation is commonly defined as:Read MoreDanger of Deforestation2627 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesThe Danger of Deforestation(rough draft) By Chenghao Chen ENGL 289 Mrs. Michelle Graf 7/1/2012 It is obvious the importance of the forest vegetation to everyone in the society. However, people in the past ages did a kind of thing that they thought was very meaningfulÃ¢â¬âcutting down the trees. When they recall this history, most of them cannot be restrained from their remorse and guilty to it. Trees or forest are things that not only protect the environment but also help people to live better
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Research Objectives and Questions This research proposal aims to make contributions to improve elderly womenÃ¢â¬Ës health. What policies can help increase the participation rate of breast cancer screening among elderly women? There are two objectives in the process of research 1. To explore and investigate the factors associated with elderly womenÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions on breast cancer screening in Australia. How to measure it will be in the second objective. Using these factors as variables, we can make questionnaires and list relevant questions. 2. To evaluate how largely these factors can influence elderly womenÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions. Measuring the importance of each factor can guide governments and BreastScreen programmes to prioritise. In theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Participants will choose an option to show whether they would like to have a breast cancer screening in the questionnaire. Each decision would be operationalised by the options for participants. Ethics The research concerns participantsÃ¢â¬â¢ privacy, therefore ensuring anonymity and confidentiality is an important ethical consideration. Participant Information Form and Participant Consent Form will guide this research and help introduce the procedures and risks involved in this research to the participants. Participants should voluntarily be involved in this research without feeling any pressure, they can opt out of the questionnaire at any time, and their information will not be used. Questionnaires only require participants to indicate their age and nationality in regards to their personal identity which ensure anonymity. And identifying information of participants will not be given to anyone who is not involved in this research to ensure confidentiality. Methodology I will use questionnaires to conduct this research, it is more practical and effective. The sample frame will be purposive sampling. I will hand out questionnaires in Australian hospitals or women healthcare centre or nursing home, and invite 100 women aged 50-74 to answer the questions. Firstly, questionnaires are more effective and easier to analyse compared with face-to-faceShow MoreRelatedHealth Care Museum1277 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¯ » ¿University of Phoenix Material Health Care Museum Part 1: Health Care Hall of Fame Museum Proposal Development Description Analysis (How does the development affect the current U.S. health care system?) 1. Surgery A surgical procedure is medical treatment that involves a physician cutting into a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s body to repair or remove something. Surgery procedures have existed since prehistoric man. In 1540 C.E. barbers and surgeons united to form The United Barber-Surgeons Company. TheseRead MoreA Community Social Event Programme For A Group Of People Over The Age Of 65 Years2171 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesIntroduction This is a project proposal for a community social event programme for a group of people over the age of 65 years. The project will identify an important need to address loneliness in old age which is a major health concern. This project proposal will explain the stages of planning the programme. Defining the Problem After contacting several organisations in the Donegal area, from the Active Retirement Association, the Family Resource Centre, the local public health nurse, and the neighbouringRead MoreConcepts of Health2342 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesCONCEPTS OF HEALTH INTRODUCTION As humans remain different in nature, so are their perceptions and response towards certain issues of their lives and well being. The concept of health assumes to be a typical example of this and hence, poses debate about what it is. Ã¢â¬Å"HealthÃ¢â¬ is a word which means different things to different people (Ewles Simnett, 2003). This essay intends to critically discuss the meaning of health by exploring different definitions and their contraindications. Naidoo Read MoreReminiscence and Life Review Group for Elderly People Essay5423 Words Ã |Ã 22 PagesReminiscence and Life Review Group for Elderly People Shane Hyde Jane Westervelt University of Idaho Reminiscence and Life Review Group for Elderly People The population of the United States is rapidly aging, and as it does, concerns for the mental health and life satisfaction of the elderly is growing. The U.S. Census Bureau projects a 29% increase in the overall population from 2000 to 2030. In contrast, the number of people 65-84 is expected to grow by approximately 100%, and theRead MoreBudget 2013-20144555 Words Ã |Ã 19 PagesGovernment. High growth rate can again be achieved through cooperation. Ã¢â¬ËHigher growth leading to inclusive and sustainable developmentÃ¢â¬â¢ to be the mool mantra. Government believes in inclusive development with emphasis on improving human development indicators specially of women, the scheduled castes, the scheduled tribes, the minorities and some backward classes. This Budget to be a testimony to that commitment. Fiscal Deficit, Current Account Deficit and Inflation The purpose of Budget to createRead MoreFish Bone Diagram from a Case Sudy4439 Words Ã |Ã 18 PagesCollaboration in bu siness process re-engineerIng: purchasing and supplies Valerie Bence Centre for Logistics and Transportation, Cranfield University, UK St James s University Hospital in Leeds is one of the biggest teaching hospitals in Europe and one of the largest acute service units in the UK National Health Service (NHS). Granted trust status in April 1991, it employs over 5000 people and sees 450,000 patients a year (see Industry Note in Appendix 22.1). Operating income from the internalRead MoreWomen Empowerment12463 Words Ã |Ã 50 PagesNATIONAL POLICY FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN (2001) | | |Introduction | |The principle of gender equality is enshrined in the Indian Constitution in its Preamble, Fundamental | |Rights, Fundamental Duties and Directive Principles. The Constitution not only grants equality to | |women, but also empowers the State to adopt measures of positive discrimination in favour of women. | |Within the framework of a democraticRead MoreAnnotated Bibliography: Plagiarism39529 Words Ã |Ã 158 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Plagiarism Bibliography Buckwalter, J. A., Wright, T., Mogoanta, L. and Alman, B. (2012), Plagiarism: An assault on the integrity of scientific research. J. Orthop. Res., 30:Ã 1867 1868. Granitz, N. and Loewy, D. (2007). Applying Ethical Theories: Interpreting and Responding to Student Plagiarism. Journal of Business Ethics, 72(3), 293-306. Luke, B. and Kearins, K. (2012), Attribution of words versus attribution of responsibilities: Academic plagiarism and university practice. Vaccine, 30(50):Read MorePros and Cons of Us Healthcare System10039 Words Ã |Ã 41 PagesComparative Study of United States and Canadas Health Care System October 19, 2012 Table of Contents I. Problem/Issue Statement 5 II. Literature Review 6 III. Problem Analysis 22 A. Government involvement 22 B. Coverage and Access 24 C. Wait times 24 D. Price of health care 25 E. Medical professionals 26 F. Drugs 27 G. Technology 28 H. Malpractice Litigation 28 I. Health Care Outcome 29 IV. Solutions and Implementation 29 V. Justification 31 VI. References 35 Executive SummaryRead MoreBusiness Case: Marketing Research for Customers Segmentation12172 Words Ã |Ã 49 PagesOriflame Belarus From: Marketing Manager XXX Date: 21/11/2010 BUSINESS CASE Version Number: 1.0 Marketing research for customers segmentation This document is confidential and has been made available to the individual to whom it is addressed strictly on the understanding that its contents will not be disclosed or discussed with any third parties with exception of the individual s own professional advisers. page. 1 of 29 Table of Contents 1 Executive Summary ....................
string(175) " constitutionality of a Connecticut law which banned solicitation of money for religious or charitable reasons unless approved by the secretary of the public welfare council\." When the American colonies rebelled against Great Britain, the rebels gave their reasons in the Declaration of Independence. According to the Declaration, people have unalienable rights to liberty. Ã¢â¬Å"The ideology of the revolutionary generation shaped the later American Bill of Rights. We will write a custom essay sample on Development of the Bill of Rights or any similar topic only for you Order Now This revolutionary ideology combined and wove together both the natural rights of man and the historic rights of EnglishmenÃ¢â¬ . The colonists emphasized natural rights and historic liberties as a result of their view of government. Government was potentially hostile to human liberty and happiness. Power was essentially aggressive. The rebellious colonists dealt with the problem of aggressive political power by several devices: separation of powers, an independent judiciary, the right of people to have a share in their own government by representatives chosen by themselves, and an insistence on the natural and historical rights and liberties of citizens reflected in revolutionary bills of rights of the several states. These concessions to slavery produced some protests. George Mason, delegate from Virginia and a leading advocate of a federal bill of rights, complained that delegates from South Carolina and Georgia were more interested in protecting the right to import slaves than in promoting Ã¢â¬Å"the Liberty and Happiness of the people. Ã¢â¬ Some framers rationalized the compromise with slavery on the assumption that the institution would soon die out. In truth, however, a compromise was made in the interest of the Union. While the framers compromised with slavery, they took steps to prevent its spread to new states. Particularly after the adoption of the Bill of Rights the Constitution reflected the Jekyll-and-Hyde character of the nation. The nation sought simultaneously to protect liberty and slavery. All in all, the Bill of Rights was adopted because of the fear of abuses of power by the federal government. It simply had no application to the states. The idea that the federal Bill of Rights protects liberty of speech and press, freedom of religion, and other basic rights from violations by the states has become commonplace, even for lawyers. Indeed, many Americans probably accepted this commonplace when careful lawyers knew it was not so. From 1833 to 1868 the Supreme Court held that none of the rights in the Bill of Rights limited the states. From 1868 to 1925 it found very few of these liberties protected from state action. Those the states were free to flout (so far as federal limitations were concerned) seemed to include free speech, press, religion, the right to jury trial, freedom from self-incrimination, from infliction of cruel and unusual punishments, and more. State constitutions, with their own bills of rights, were available to protect the individual, but too often they proved to be paper barriers. Most, but not all, scholars believe that the Supreme Court was right, at least as a matter of history, up to 1868. They believe, that is, that the founding fathers did not intend for the Bill of Rights to limit the states. In contrast to the English Bill of Rights of 1689, in which the powers of Parliament are protected against the encroachments of the monarch, the American Bill of Rights was created to protect the individual against the intrusions of the legislative and executive branches of the government. As James Madison expressed it, Ã¢â¬Å"If we advert to the nature of Republican Government we shall find that censorial power is in the people over the Government, and not in the Government over the people. Ã¢â¬ Nowhere in the Bill of Rights is this more sharply affirmed than in the words of the First Amendment: Ã¢â¬Å"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. Ã¢â¬Å" Although nine of the thirteen colonies had established churches, four did not (Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware). By the time the First Amendment was adopted, however, only three states had an established church -Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Connecticut. Of even greater significance is that no two states shared the same religious configuration with respect to its population. Not to be overlooked is that in the decade between the Declaration of Independence and the Constitutional Convention, numerous states had made declarations in support of religious freedom prior to the adoption of the Bill of Rights. In 1868 the Fourteenth Amendment was ratified. Beginning in the 1920s, the U. S. Supreme Court began to apply the Bill of Rights to states through a process now called the incorporation of the Bill of Rights into the Fourteenth Amendment. As originally passed, the Bill of Rights applied only to the federal government and not to state governments. The Fourteenth AmendmentÃ¢â¬â¢s equal protection and due process clauses clearly applied to the states. Through a series of lengthy cases, the Court engaged in a piecemeal process of interpreting the Fourteenth Amendment clauses to include the various freedoms protected in the Bill of Rights. In Near v. Minnesota (1931) the Supreme Court applied freedom of the press to the states. In this case, the city of Minneapolis tried to suppress the publication of scandalous, malicious and defamatory material in newspapers. A newspaper publishers association, fearing censorship, challenged the Minnesota law on the grounds of violation of freedom of press. The Supreme Court struck down the law by contending that it represented prior restraint of future issues. The most important freedom given to the press is freedom from prior restraint, the freedom not to be censored. The process of nationalizing the Bill of Rights through the Fourteenth Amendment continued in the area of free exercise of religion. In Hamilton v. Board of Regents (1934), the Court held that freedom of religion was protected by the First Amendment against invasion by the national government and by the states. This decision was confirmed in Cantwell v. Connecticut (1940). This case questioned the constitutionality of a Connecticut law which banned solicitation of money for religious or charitable reasons unless approved by the secretary of the public welfare council. You read "Development of the Bill of Rights" in category "Papers" This particular official had the authority to decide whether a fund-raising cause was truly a religious one. In a unanimous decision, the Supreme Court ruled that the statute violated religious freedom and the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. From the critical standpoint, the Bill of Rights not only constitutionally protects individual rights of citizens, such as freedom of religion, peaceable assembly, right to keep and bear arms, trial by jury, but it also secures the entire system of American democratic values and implementation of democracy in reality. For instance, freedom of press, declared of in the First Amendment, does not mean only that Ã¢â¬Å"Congress shall make no lawÃ¢â¬ ¦ abridging the freedom ofÃ¢â¬ ¦press. Ã¢â¬ Considering the fact independent media is one of the pillars of modern democracy, this constitutional guarantee aims to secure democratic principles of the country. Moreover, the freedom of press implies automatically the absence of any censorship limiting the execution of freedom of speech, which is too declared in the First Amendment and similarly is to protect democratic principles. The Bill of Rights has been created not only to protect freedoms and liberties of American citizens on individual levels, but also to secure the position of a person before the government. For example, the Fifth Amendment provides that no person shall be forced in any criminal case to be a witness against oneself. At the same time, from my personal viewpoint, the fundamental importance of the Bill of Rights is its long lasting effect and its tremendous influence on American legislative and judicial system. Firstly, the Bill triggered the adoption by the Congress of several important acts protecting civil liberties like Civil Rights Act. Secondly, because the Bill is an integral and vital part of US Constitution, and thus the ultimate legal power, legislative and judicial system have been continuously improving constitutional doctrine on individual rights. For example, one can notice during 1960-70s the constitutional rights of public employees to freedom of speech and association, procedural due process, and equal protection have also been vastly expanded. Historically the Constitution has retained its flexibility because interpretations of its meaning have changed. Choosing between two or more sets of competing values, the Supreme Court has played a major role in maintaining this flexibility. A significant trend has been the extension of civil rights to the previously powerless. For instance, the involvement of the U. S. Supreme Court in civil rights for blacks is long-standing, dating back to issues from the days of slavery. In the Dred Scott case (1857), Chief Justice Taney ruled that no blacks, slave or free, were citizens, and that blacks had no citizenship rights (Hall, 38). In 1883, two decades after the Civil War and the official end of slavery, the Court ruled on five separate suits affecting the rights of blacks, and collectively called the Civil Rights Cases (1883). These cases arose in response to the Civil Rights Act of 1875 which prohibited racial discrimination in jury selection and public accommodations. In these cases, the public accommodations portions of the 1875 act were challenged. The Court recognized that the Fourteenth Amendment forbade discrimination by states but it made no mention of discriminatory acts committed by individuals. Since the Civil Rights Act prohibited discrimination by individuals and private businesses, the Court ruled that the act had overstepped congressional authority and was therefore unconstitutional. By the end of World War II, the Supreme Court had become more supportive of civil rights for blacks. It struck down the all-white primary in Smith v. Allright (1944), arguing that the Democratic party was in essence an agent of the state and was therefore subject to the Fifteenth Amendment. During the late 1940s and the 1950s, the Court followed the trends begun earlier of moving away from the doctrine of Ã¢â¬Å"separate but equalÃ¢â¬ (Hall, 51). This may be seen in the cases of Sipuel v. Oklahoma (1948), Sweatt v. Painter (1950) and McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents (1950). In the Sipuel case, which was similar to the Gaines case, the Court ordered Oklahoma to provide a separate but equal law school for a black woman and stressed the need for equality in facilities. In Sweatt v. Painter, the state of Texas had established a separate black law school but it was inferior to the white law school at the University of Texas in the size of its faculty and the quality of its library and student body. The court ruled that the black law school had to be improved. The Court nearly overturned the Ã¢â¬Å"separate but equalÃ¢â¬ doctrine in the McLaurin case in which Oklahoma had allowed a black student to attend a white graduate school but had segregated him from the rest of the students by designating separate sections of the library, cafeteria and classrooms for him. The Court struck down these segregation provisions, claiming that they interfered with the ability of the black student to exchange ideas with other students, a requisite for a good education. Although these cases fell short of invalidating the Ã¢â¬Å"separate but equalÃ¢â¬ principle, they made segregation at the graduate school level more difficult to implement. Perhaps the most significant civil rights cases to aid blacks in the fight for equality were the two Brown cases in the 1950s. Brown v. Board of Education I (1954) arose as the result of a suit against Topeka, Kansas where Linda Brown, a black child, was not permitted to attend a segregated white school four blocks from her home. In Brown I, under the leadership of Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warren, the Court overturned the Plessy decision of Ã¢â¬Å"separate but equalÃ¢â¬ in the public schools by declaring that the separate but equal doctrine made black children feel inferior. In Brown v. Board of Education II (1955), the Court ruled on how to accomplish desegregation, concluding that local school boards should establish plans for desegregation under the supervision of federal district judges and Ã¢â¬Å"with all deliberate speedÃ¢â¬ . Despite these court rulings, southern school boards were slow to respond and avoided court orders by closing public schools and placing white children in private schools. Consequently, desegregation was only implemented very slowly. Women are not a minority but they have historically experienced legal discrimination based on their gender. The Supreme Court has played an important role in the expansion of rights for women. Overall the Court has been less important in the expansion of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights than it has been in the extension of rights to blacks and other racial minorities. A major reason for the less important role of the Court is that womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights have mostly been broadened through legislation. Many womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights cases addressed by the Supreme Court have been concerned with employment. Early court decisions followed a trend of protectionism and upheld restrictions on the nature and conditions of employment for women. In Bradwell v. Illinois (1873), the Supreme Court upheld a state law preventing women from practicing law. Not until the 1970s did U. S. Supreme Court rulings begin to move away from the restrictive, protectionist trend of the past. Reed v. Reed (1971) was the first instance of the Court striking down a state law which discriminated against women. Taylor v. Louisiana (1975) overturned the precedent set in Hoyt v. Florida. Phillips v. Martin-Marietta (1971) ruled that employers could not discriminate against mothers of preschool children, despite fears that they might often miss work to care for their children. In Stanton v. Stanton (1975) the Court struck down a Utah law which required divorced fathers to support sons until they were twenty-one under the assumption that they would need support while being educated, while daughters had to be supported only until they were eighteen under the assumption that they would get married and be supported by their husbands. Beginning in the 1920s, the U. S. Supreme Court began to apply the Bill of Rights to states through a process now called the incorporation of the Bill of Rights into the Fourteenth Amendment. As originally passed, the Bill of Rights applied only to the federal government and not to state governments. The Fourteenth AmendmentÃ¢â¬â¢s equal protection and due process clauses clearly applied to the states. Through a series of lengthy cases, the Court engaged in a piecemeal process of interpreting the Fourteenth Amendment clauses to include the various freedoms protected in the Bill of Rights. In Near v. Minnesota (1931) the Supreme Court applied freedom of the press to the states. In this case, the city of Minneapolis tried to suppress the publication of scandalous, malicious and defamatory material in newspapers. A newspaper publishers association, fearing censorship, challenged the Minnesota law on the grounds of violation of freedom of press. The Supreme Court struck down the law by contending that it represented prior restraint of future issues. The most important freedom given to the press is freedom from prior restraint, the freedom not to be censored. In many cases the statements embedded in the Bill of Rights are impacted directly or indirectly through the process of governance in the United States. One of the most peculiar examples of this impact is adoption of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001, commonly known as the Patriot Act. This act significantly expands the power of the federal government to investigate, detain, and deport those people who the government suspects are linked to terrorist activity and other crimes. The Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution requires the government to prove to a judicial officer that it has probable cause of a crime before it conducts an invasive search to find evidence of that crime or in exact words, this Amendment declares that Ã¢â¬Å"the right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable causeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Before the enactment of the Patriot Act, if the primary purpose was a criminal investigation, the law enforcement officials had to first prove the higher standard of probable cause. Investigating criminal activity cannot be the primary purpose of surveillance. Now American society witnesses how one of the most fundamental statements of the Bill of Rights, particularly that one protecting individual freedoms from the state, is challenged. The change made by Section 218 of the Patriot Act authorizes unconstitutional activity by impinging on the Fourth Amendment protection that requires probable cause. Section 218 now provides law enforcement officials with a tool to avoid probable cause when conducting criminal investigation surveillance. The adoption of the Patriot Act has been triggered with the war the United States declared against terrorism. Interestingly, the same event, the war on terrorism, challenged another important element of the Bill of Rights, namely the due process clause of the Fifth Amendment, which states that Ã¢â¬Å"no person shall Ã¢â¬ ¦ be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of lawÃ¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ Practically, this statement aims to secure individuals from unconstitutional exercise on the behalf of the government. Importantly, this article provides Americans with the right to be tried by unprejudiced courts with application of lawful procedures and laws. However, during the war in Afghanistan and Iraq, the US government intentionally deterred in prisons many prisoners of war (identifying them as terrorists) without court orders, indictments and further court hearings. Here one can notice the constitutional collision, in which the rights of the US government during wartime (including deterring of individuals without due process clause) challenges the statements embedded in the Bill of Rights. Works Cited Barnett, Randy E. ed., 1989. Ninth Amendment. supra note 29, at 18 Bailyn, Bernard. 1967. Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Ely, J. 1980. Democracy and Distrust. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Hall, Kermit L. 1989. The Magic Mirror. Law in American History, New York: Oxford University Press. Levine, James P. 1992. Juries and Politics, Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Madison, James. November 27, 1794. Republicanism. Speech in Congress. Annals of Congress 934. Nelson, William E. 1988. The Fourteenth Amendment: From Political Principle to Judicial Doctrine. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Schwartz, B. 1971. The Bill of Rights. A Documentary History. pp. 222-226. Wiecek, W.Ã 1976. The Sources of Antislavery Constitutionalism in America, 1760-1848. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. P. 74 How to cite Development of the Bill of Rights, Papers
Sunday, April 26, 2020
We Wear The Mask Analysis of ?We Wear the Mask? In one of Paul Lawrence Dunbar's most famous poem's ?We Wear the Mask,? he describes the harsh reality of the black race in America and how they hide their grief, sadness, and broken hearts under a mask for a survival strategy towards whites. ?We wear the mask that grins and lies, It hides our cheeks and shades our eyes, This debt we pay to human guile; With torn and bleeding hearts we smile, And mouth with myriad subtleties.? In the first verse, the mask is taken off. The ?We? of the poem describes the black community that lives a double life, the masked and the unmasked. Dunbar included the word ?mask? in his poem because historically it was a false deceptive role-playing that was acceptable for a survival strategy by blacks and it maintained a sense of empowerment in a racial society. The word ?lies? is a simple word but the mask not only lies to the whites, but to the person who is wearing the mask that start to live by it. Dunbar uses the word ?mouth? as a verb, which intensifies our expressive genuine facial features that never lies. In life, the mask is the concealment of those features that reveal tears that give quality to a smile. The masks when worn is always smiling but underneath are the torn and broken heart of one's soul and ?this debt we pay to human guile.? The debt that the black community is paying dearly by wearing the mask everyday for the cunning white race with ?myriad subtleties?, t he black race that wants to speak out and be heard. ?Why should the world be otherwise, In counting all our tears and sighs? Nay, let them only see us, while We wear the mask.? The second verse, the mask is replaced. The word ?overwise?, Dunbar recognizes that the black people knew too much for their own good. They knew that if they were to speak out that they would be condemned for knowing too much in which they struggled for equality from the white race and peace within. In the last three lines of the second verse emphasis their hurt when they are not around the white race and how they are trapped under the mask. We smile, but, O great Christ, our cries To thee from tortured souls arise. We sing, but oh the clay is vile Beneath our feet, and long the mile; But let the world dream otherwise, We wear the mask! In the words ?We smile?, it shows that they wear their smiling mask everyday with tortured souls beneath and that they pray to Christ to find peace in the awful world they live in. The words ?clay is vile? sets the setting for slavery on a plantation in the south where clay is popular. The plantation is where they worked and lived. Which did whites that treated blacks with disgust own. The words ?world dream otherwise,? says that the otherwise will turn their head the other way and think differently. Some of them will die with their mask on and never realizing the truth or some will wake up without the mask and reveal the truth that it is wrong. In Paul Lawrence Dunbar's poem, he links it to the black race and uses extended metaphor to have a penetrating insight to the reality of the frowned upon race in America, that struggles for equality and peace within a racial society. Bibliography In one of Paul Lawrence Dunbar's most famous poem's ?We Wear the Mask,? he describes the harsh reality of the black race in America and how they hide their grief, sadness, and broken hearts under a mask for a survival strategy towards whites.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
chipolte essay chipolte essay When observing the popularity of Chipotles commercial on YouTube, itÃ¢â¬â¢s obvious the advertisement emotionally moved millions of people on the Internet. But what exactly was so special about the commercial that made it so popular? And what were Chipotles intentions when making this advertisement? I believe that Chipotle used certain emotional-pulls to appeal to the vegetarian audience and did this strictly to gain customers. Chipotle has two animated commercials. The first commercial was lower budget than the second one. This first one was also not nearly as popular as the second one. It is a clay-mation video that tells a heart-felt story towards the cruelty of animals in the food business. The story starts off by showing a farmer raise livestock on his farm. Eventually the farmer uses factory-like tactics on raising and slaughtering his livestock. The video shows the animated pigs being put inside a factory and coming out of the factory in the shape of a square. This symbolize s the inhumane treatment of animals in big corporations. After the famer observes the cruel treatment of the animals, he becomes sympathetic. He decides to go back to farming the natural way. He gets rid of the factories and puts the cattle, pigs, and chickens in pastors. Eventually Chipotles chili logo is shown. The commercial is slightly touching, but it makes me wonder.. Chipotle uses meat do they not? And if I am not mistaken, they are a growing corporation. They are not a small business anymore. The appeal to a vegan audience seems right. But are they advertising that way to do just that; advertise. (Lutz 2) Is Chipotle really concerned with quality of life that todayÃ¢â¬â¢s livestock endures? In my opinion, Chipotle is clever and manipulative. They want you to feel like they are on your side, so they can gain you as a customer and make money. I believe if vegetarianism were not as popular today, Chipotle would not think to appeal to that audience. (Lutz 2) I believe they wou ld appeal to whichever audience would give them more customers. Chipotles second commercial is even more heart-felt. With a bigger budget and a more popular company, they are capable of creating a beautiful commercial that is advertised strictly on YouTube! (Vinjamuri 3) The ad has impressive animation and music. It starts off telling the story of a scarecrow going to work. He is not happy though. He works in a large corporation. The company is called Crow Foods, and it is the only company that feeds the city! The factory is huge, and inside the video shows you how the chickens are getting injected with hormones (much like many factories do in real life today) and the cows are constantly milked by an uncomfortable steel milking machine inside a cramped area, where they are unable to stretch or even move. The scarecrow sees all of these cruel things happening to the animals inside the insensitive Crow Foods factory and feels sad (you see this by the sad expression on the scare crows face) He wants to help make a stop at the insensitive treatment. The video moves to the scarecrow hopping on a train, riding through the countryside. Out the window, the scare crow watches Crow Foods spray pesticides and other harmful chemicals all over the fields. His face saddens even more. He finally reaches his home in the countryside. He stares at his home, then at his garden. His
Monday, March 2, 2020
Sentence Building with Appositives If you have read How to Build Sentences With Appositives and Practice in Identifying Appositives, you should be well prepared for these sentence combining exercises. Instructions Combine the sentences in each set below into a single clear sentence with at least one appositive. Omit words that are needlessly repeated, but dont leave out any important details. If you run into problems, you may find it helpful to review the following pages: Introduction to Sentence CombiningWhat Is an Appositive?Practice in Identifying Appositives When youre done, compare your new sentences with the sample combinations on page two. Keep in mind that many combinations are possible, and in some cases you may prefer your own sentences to the original versions. Monroe and I strolled through the graveyard.The graveyard is the most peaceful spot in town.St. Valentine is the patron saint of lovers.St. Valentine was never married.We were waiting outside the prison cells.The cells were a row of sheds fronted with double bars.The cells were like small animal cages.My father was outside.My father was beneath the window.My father whistled for Reggie.Reggie was our English setter.We saw the stream in the valley.The stream was black.The stream was halted.The stream was a tarred path through the wilderness.We arrived at a group of peasant houses.The group was small.The houses were low yellow constructions.The houses had dried-mud walls.The houses had straw mats.A great many old people came.They knelt around us.They prayed.They included old women with jet-black faces.The women had braided hair.They included old men with work-gnarled hands.One of the Cratchet girls had borrowed the books.She was a hatchet-faced girl.She was thin.She was eager.She was a transplanted Cockney.She had a frenzy for reading. It was the kind of home that gathers memories like dust.It was a place filled with laughter.It was filled with play.It was filled with pain.It was filled with hurt.It was filled with ghosts.It was filled with games.I led a raid on the grocery.It was the grocery of Barba Nikos.The grocery was small.The grocery was shabby.Barba Nikos was old.Barba Nikos was short.Barba Nikos was sinewy.Barba Nikos was a Greek.Barba Nikos walked with a slight limp.Barba Nikos sported a flaring handlebar moustache. When you are done, compare your new sentences with the sample combinations on page two. On this page youll find answers to the exercises on page one, Sentence Building With Appositives. Keep in mind that in many cases more than one combination is possible. Monroe and I strolled through the graveyard, the most peaceful spot in town.St. Valentine, the patron saint of lovers, was never married.We were waiting outside the prison cells, a row of sheds fronted with double bars, like small animal cages.(George Orwell, A Hanging)Outside beneath my window, my father whistled for Reggie, our English setter.We saw the stream in the valley, black and halted, a tarred path through the wilderness.(Laurie Lee, Winter and Summer)We arrived at a small group of peasant houses, low yellow constructions with dried-mud walls and straw roofs.(Alberto Moravia, Lobster Land: A Traveler in China)A great many old people came and knelt around us and prayed, old women with jet-black faces and old men with work-gnarled hands.(Langston Hughes, Salvation)One of the Cratchet girls had borrowed the books, a hatchet-faced, thin, eager, transplanted Cockney girl with a frenzy for reading.(Wallace Stegner, Wolf Willow)It was the kind of home that gathers memories like du st, a place filled with laughter and play and pain and hurt and ghosts and games.(Lillian Smith, Killers of the Dream) I led a raid on the small, shabby grocery of Barba Nikos, a short sinewy Greek who walked with a slight limp and sported a flaring, handlebar moustache.(Harry Mark Petrakis, Stelmark: A Family Recollection)
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Potential Causes for the Growth of Organic Food Market in UK - Dissertation Example Potential Causes for the Growth of Organic Food Market in UK 2.1. Relevance of Choosing the Research Topic As elaborated above, familiarity is a significant aspect for the enlargement of the organic food market. Orlikowski, (2010) reported that according to the researchersÃ¢â¬â¢ individuals are uninformed about the practises and process employed for organic produces and lots of them are puzzled about the term Ã¢â¬ËorganicÃ¢â¬â¢. In view of the existing market conditions it very vital to identify what customer means by the term Ã¢â¬ËorganicÃ¢â¬â¢. The UK consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s awareness about organic food and the reasons that persuade them to demand organic food can be explored by this research. A foundation to appreciate what customers believe regarding organic food is presented by this research. To promote their products, marketers require exploring the motive for demands and apply it as an instrument to even target definite segments. 2.2. Importance of this Research ConsumerÃ¢â¬â¢s awareness of the product and its production has an extremely significant role in their purchase decision making. The decision regarding purchasing a product can be influenced by familiarity. Even customer is encouraged to procure the particular product because of superior knowledge. It directs and transforms them into habitual purchasers and develops an optimistic attitude about the manufactured goods in them. To promote the product and to seek(target) different segments, causes for productÃ¢â¬â¢s demand may possibly be employed as a tool.